Ownership transparency

This category is based on information from the national chapters (for countries) and chapter 5.8.4 on ‘Hidden ownership’ (for the European Parliament and Commission).

Green
Countries that have adopted a law to introduce a public register of beneficial ownership information on companies. If the country allows the establishment of trusts or similar legal structures, these will also be subject to a public register of beneficial owners. If the country does not allow the establishment of trusts or similar legal structures, the country is not opposed to introducing public registers of beneficial owners of trusts at the EU level.
This category also includes EU institutions that have supported public registers of beneficial ownership of companies and trusts at EU-wide level.
Yellow
The country or institution has chosen a problematic ‘middle way’. For countries, this category includes those that have adopted a law to introduce a public register of beneficial owners of companies, while at the same time providing opportunities for establishing secret trusts or similar legal structures. It also includes countries that have established public registers with restrictions that limit the possibilities for using the data. For EU institutions, this category includes those that have supported public registers for some entities (for example companies and business-related trusts), but not for all.
Red
Countries that have not adopted a law to introduce a public register of owners. For EU institutions, this category also includes those that have rejected the option of establishing public registers of beneficial owners at EU-wide level.

Symbols

Arrows: Show that a country seems to be in the process of moving from one category to another. The colour of the arrow denotes the category being moved towards.
  Restricted access sign: Shows that the position of the government is not available to the public, and thus the country has been given a yellow light due to a lack of information.